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27th World Oncologists Annual Conference on Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology & Surgical Oncology, will be organized around the theme “Believe there is hope for a cure”

World Oncologists 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in World Oncologists 2018

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Medical oncology is the analysis of cancer with medicine, made up of chemotherapy, surgical oncology is the surgical aspects of cancer including biopsy, staging, and surgical resection of tumors, and radiation oncology is the analysis of cancer with therapeutic radiation. Medical Oncology is usually works in conjunction with Surgical Oncology or Radiation Oncology to give the best clinical outcomes. We determine the right treatment plan for each individual based on various factors as stage of cancer, extent of the damage, other medical conditions, and location within the body. These treatment plans contain any combination of the following: Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy and Surgery.

  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Hormone therapy

 

The genetic changes that contribute to cancer tend to affect three main types of genes - proto oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. These changes are sometimes called “drivers” of cancer. Proto-oncogenes are involved in normal cell growth and division. However, when these genes are altered in certain ways or are more active than normal, they may become cancer-causing genes (or oncogenes) allowing cells to grow and survive when they should not. Tumor suppressor genes are also involved in controlling cell growth and division. Cells with certain alterations in tumor suppressor genes may divide in an uncontrolled mannerDNA repair genes are involved in fixing damaged DNA. Cells with mutations in these genes tend to develop additional mutations in other genes. Together, these mutations may cause the cells to become cancerous. The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis. Metastatic cancer spreads from the part of the body   where it originated (the primary site) to other parts of the body. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chances of developing a Tumor. Although factors often influence the development of a tumor, most do not directly cause it. Some people with several risk factors never develop a tumor, while others with no known risk factors do. Some risk factors are as Age, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Family history, Immune system suppression, arsenic exposure. Generally, the cause of Cancer is unknown. People who have one of the rare family syndromes have a higher risk of developing Tumors.

Surgery is the main treatment in nearly every case of cancer, and it is the main treatment for both pheochromocytoma and Merkel cell cancer. During surgery, the doctor removes the tumor along with a small border of healthy tissue around the tumor, called a margin For pheochromocytomalaparoscopic surgery may be performed. Laparoscopic surgery is a less invasive type of surgery that uses three or four small incisions instead of one large incision. A thin, lighted tube called a laparoscope that is attached to a video camera is inserted through one opening to guide the surgeon. Surgical instruments are inserted through the other openings to perform the surgery. If removing the tumor using surgery is not possible, it is called an inoperable tumor, and the doctor will recommend another type of treatment. The patient candidate forsurgery does not depend on factors such as the type, size, location, grade and stage of the Tumor along with the consideration of the general health factors like age, physical fitness and other coexisting medical conditions. Surgery will be combined with other Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, Radiation therapy or hormone therapy in some Cases.

Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers that are typically injected into the blood stream, inhaled or swallowed. The radiotracer travels through the area being examined and gives off energy in the form of gamma rays which are detected by a special camera and a computer to create images of the inside of your body. Nuclear medicine imaging provides unique information that often cannot be obtained using other imaging procedures and offers the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages.

Doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to treat patients with tumor. To make scientific advances, doctors create research studies involving volunteers, called clinical trials. Many clinical trials are focused on new treatments, evaluating whether a new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the current (standard) treatment. These types of studies evaluate new drugs, different combinations of existing treatments, new approaches in radiation therapy or surgery, and new methods of treatment. Patients who participate in clinical trials are often among the first to receive new treatments before they are widely available. However, there is no guarantee that the new treatment will be safe, effective, or better than a standard treatment. There are also clinical trials that study new ways to ease symptoms and side effects during treatment and managing the late effects that may occur after treatment. 

Surgery is the main treatment in nearly every case of cancer, and it is the main treatment for both pheochromocytoma and Merkel cell cancer. During surgery, the doctor removes the tumor along with a small border of healthy tissue around the tumor, called a margin For pheochromocytomalaparoscopic surgery may be performed. Laparoscopic surgery is a less invasive type of surgery that uses three or four small incisions instead of one large incision. A thin, lighted tube called a laparoscope that is attached to a video camera is inserted through one opening to guide the surgeon. Surgical instruments are inserted through the other openings to perform the surgery. If removing the tumor using surgery is not possible, it is called an inoperable tumor, and the doctor will recommend another type of treatment. The patient candidate forsurgery does not depend on factors such as the type, size, location, grade and stage of the Tumor along with the consideration of the general health factors like age, physical fitness and other coexisting medical conditions. Surgery will be combined with other Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, Radiation therapy or hormone therapy in some Cases.

Biomarkers have a greater role in the study of cancer, which involves the risk assessment, screening, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of the treatment response, and monitoring of the progression of the disease. As the biomarkers play an important role in every condition of the disease, the biomarkers is evaluated accurately, including Analytical validationClinical validation and Clinical utility assessment, incorporating routine clinical care.  Cancer Biomarkers are also useful in the process of developing drug targets that makes it easy to deliver the drugs.

·         Pharmacodynamics cancer biomarkers

·         Biomarkers in cancer research and medicine

·         Cancer epidemiology and biomarkers

·         Immuno oncology biomarkers

·         Biomarkers for the prognosis of cancer and prediction of treatment

·         Use of biomarkers for developing drug targets

   

Radiation Medicine is a process in which they use high-energy radiation, in the form of waves or particles, to destroy cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Because radiation can harm healthy cells, treatment must be carefully planned and precisely conducted to minimize side effects. Radiation therapy may be given before, during, or after other therapies in your treatment plan. It may be used alone or with other treatments to destroy cancer cells, shrink tumors, prevent recurrence and relieve symptoms caused by the cancer, such as pain. The Radiation team plans the treatment by choosing the type, dose and area where the radiation therapy is to be performed. Internal radiation (these include different radioactive materials like seeds, beads, wires or other radioactive substances for the treatment by placing them within the body near the cancer cells. People involved in radiation medicine are Medical PhysicistRadiation Oncologist, Dosimetrist, Radiation Therapist.

   An endocrine tumor is a growth that affects the parts of the body that secrete hormones. Because an endocrine tumor arises from cells that produce hormones, the tumor itself can produce hormones. These hormones are produced in excessive amounts by endocrine tumors and then released into the blood. The excessive amounts of hormones in the blood produce marked abnormal effects on the body. A neuroendocrine tumor begins in the area showing combination of hormone-producing endocrine cells and nerve cells. Neuroendocrine cells are found throughout the body in organs such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach and intestines. Neuroendocrine cells perform specific functions, such as regulating air and blood flow through the lungs and controlling how quickly food moves through the gastrointestinal tract. They are other types of tumors in endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.

·         Pancreatic Cancer

·         Thyroid Cancer

·         Carcinoid Tumor

·         Pheochromocytoma

·         Merkel Cell Cancer

·         Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Breast cancer can begin in different areas of the breast; the ducts, the lobules, or in some cases, the tissue in between. In this section, we could include the different types of breast cancer, including non-invasive, invasive, recurrent, and metastatic breast cancers. Breast cancer is a phenomena that can even occur in men. Breast tissue contains fat and connective tissue, lymph nodes and blood vessels, they are made up of glands called tubules that can produce milk and thin tubes called ducts that carry the milk to the nipple. The most common type of breast Cancer is ductal Carcinoma. Breast Cancer can also begin in the cells of the lobules in other tissues in the breast.

Reproductive Cancers are those Cancers that occur in the reproductive organs of both Women and Men. In Women, these are Cancers that commonly occur in the breastcervixvulvaendometrium or Ovaries. In men reproductive Cancer can be found in the prostatetesticles, and penis.

Cancer staging is the process of determining how much the cancer has spread out inside the body and where it is located. Staging describes the severity of an individual's cancer based on the magnitude of the original (primary) tumor as well as on the extent the cancer has spread in the body. Understanding the stage of the cancer helps doctors to develop a prognosis and design a treatment plan for individual patients.

·         Clinical Staging

·         Pathologic Staging

·         Post-Therapy or Post-Neoadjuvant Therapy Staging

·         Restaging

                              

 

Anticancer drugalso called antineoplastic drug, any drug that is effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones. In addition, there are a number of drugs that do not fall within those classes but that demonstrate anticancer activity and thus are used in the treatment of malignant disease. Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs designed to slow or stop the growth of rapidly dividing cancer cells in the body. The drugs may be used:

·         As a primary treatment to destroy cancer cells

·         Before another treatment to shrink a tumor

·         After another treatment to destroy any remaining cancer cells

·         To relieve symptoms of advanced cancer

 

Cardio-oncology is the intersection of heart conditions in patients who have been treated for cancer. Cardiologists can assess patients for potential risk of developing heart conditions if patients  take certain types of cancer drugs, or following radiation treatment to the chest. They also help oncologists protect their patients during treatment by closely watching the heart and recognizing heart trouble early in treatment.

There is a great deal of research investigating the mechanisms of how drugs are metabolized and absorbed by the body's cells. Growing knowledge in this field provides the foundations for improving the anticancer potential for existing drugs and for developing new 'designer' drugs. Other work includes research into the mechanisms of drug resistance.

Cancers of the orbit and adnexa develop from tissues such as muscle, nerve, and skin around the eyeball and are like their counterparts in other parts of the body.

The phenomenon of Cancer cells spreading to other parts of the body is called metastasis. Metastatic cancer has spread from the part of the body where it started (the primary site) to other parts of the body. There are a number of different types of Cancer. They are generally are called after the organ or type of cell they develop in the beginning, Medical Illustrations, Risk Factors, Prevention, Symptoms & Signs, Diagnosis, Stages, Treatment Options, About Clinical Trials, Latest Research, Coping with Treatment, Follow-Up CareSurvivorship, The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) believes that all treatment decisions should be made between patients and their doctors. Tumor most often develops in the gut or pancreas. These tumors are sometimes grouped together and called gastro entero pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or GEP NETs in short. NETs of the gut are most often carcinoid tumors. They may also just be called carcinoid. NETs that develop in the pancreas are also called endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Some of these tumors can also develop outside the pancreas. For example, gastrinomas have been reported in the medical literature to develop in the ovaries, kidneys, stomach and liver, and not just in the pancreas and small bowel area. Common types of Cancer which are  diagnosed most often are Breast Cancer, Bladder CancerColorectal CancerKidney CancerLung CancerLymphomaMelanomaOral and Oropharyngeal CancerPancreatic, ProstateThyroid CancerUterine Cancer.

                     

Hematologic cancers affect he production and function of ones’ blood cells. Most of these cancers originate in the bone marrow where blood is produced. Stem cells in the bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells, or cancerous cells, prevent the blood from performing many of its functions, like fighting off infections or preventing  serious bleeding.

·       Lymphoma

·         Leukemia

·         Myeloma

Gastro-Intestinal (GI) Cancer is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system. The known risk factors for gastrointestinal cancers currently include smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity, asbestos etc. This includes cancers of the EsophagusGall bladderLiverPancreasStomachSmall intestineBowel (large intestine or Colon and Rectum), and Anus

·         Esophageal Cancer (Carcinoma)

·         Gastric Cancer

·         Hepatocellular Carcinoma

·         Pancreatic Cancer

                    

Head and Neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck (for example, inside the mouth, the nose, and the throat). These squamous cell cancers are often referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Head and neck cancers can also develop in the salivary glands, but salivary gland cancers are relatively uncommon. Salivary glands contain different types of cells that can become cancerous, so there are many different types of salivary gland cancer. Cancers of the head and neck are further categorized by the area of the head or neck in which they begin from Oral cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Para-nasal sinuses and Nasal cavitySalivary glands.

Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytomagliomagiloblastoma, multiforme, ependymomapontneglioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst. In these cases, if untreated life span usually amounts to only a few months, and survival with current radiation and chemotherapy treatments may extend that time from around a year to a year and a half, possibly two or more, depending on the patient's condition, immune function, treatments used.